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Leveraging Code Generation with KSP for Efficient JSON Serialization

In adjoe’s WAVE team, our mission is to empower app publishers with a seamless and efficient ad mediation solution and maximize their monetization potential. A critical aspect of this mission involves ensuring that our SDKs, which affect millions of users around the world, are robust and performant. 

We identified that one of the key areas where we could optimize performance is through JSON serialization. Instead of relying on third-party libraries in our Android SDK, we decided to develop our own JSON serialization library tailored for our team’s needs.

We’ve integrated Kotlin Symbol Processing (KSP) to streamline and automate the generation of serialization code at compile time.

Why Develop Our Own Library?

We as SDK developers need fine-grained control over every aspect of our codebase. Relying on third-party libraries can introduce unnecessary complexity and constraints. 

By developing our own JSON serialization library, we are able to:

  1. Optimize performance: Tailor the serialization logic to our specific data models, eliminating generic overhead and improving speed.
  2. Reduce dependencies: Avoid potential compatibility issues and security vulnerabilities associated with third-party dependencies.
  3. Customize behavior: Implement custom serialization and deserialization behaviors that are uniquely suited to our SDK’s constantly evolving requirements.

What is Compile-Time Code Generation?

Compile-time code generation involves creating source code during the compilation process, usually through annotation processing. This approach offers you several advantages over traditional reflection-based approaches:

  1. Performance: You eliminate the need for runtime reflection, which can be slow and resource-intensive, as generated code is compiled into the final application.
  2. Type safety: You enhance the reliability of the code, since you can catch errors at compile time rather than runtime.
  3. Maintainability: The codebase is cleaner and easier to maintain, as this approach reduces boilerplate code.

Several known libraries like Room (Android Jetpack), Dagger, and Moshi use compile-time code generation to provide their functionality.

What is Kotlin Symbol Processing?

Kotlin Symbol Processing (KSP) is a powerful tool introduced by JetBrains that allows developers to build lightweight compiler plugins. 

KSP provides a simplified API for processing Kotlin programs and generating code. Compared to traditional annotation processors, KSP offers better performance and compatibility with Kotlin’s features. 

Annotation processors that use KSP can, for example, run up to two times faster than with kapt. Additionally, by hiding compiler changes, KSP minimizes maintenance efforts for processors. This makes it a great choice for us. You can find a more detailed comparison to other tools and approaches in KSP’s official document

How Did We Leverage Code Generation?

In our library, Joson, the fundamental processes are JSON serialization and deserialization for structured data types. Avoiding runtime reflection, our approach revolves around using adapters to handle the conversion between Kotlin objects and their JSON representation. This means that each data type that needs to be serialized or deserialized requires a corresponding adapter class implemented in the source code.

The following code snippet shows a simplified version of the abstraction for our JSONAdapters, in which JWriter and JReader are helper classes for writing and reading a JSON-encoded value as a stream of tokens.

abstract class JsonAdapter<T> {
    /** Encodes the given [value] with the given [writer]. */
    abstract fun toJson(writer: JWriter, value: T?)

    /** Decodes a nullable instance of type [T] from the given [reader]. */
    abstract fun fromJson(reader: JReader): T?

The library’s core module provides adapters for Kotlin common types and parameterized types – for example, primitives and collections. But what about the custom data types?

Instead of writing an adapter class for each and every data model in our main codebase, we use the magical power of code generation and utilize KSP to create adapters.

Therefore, alongside the main module for the library, we have a code generator module implementing and registered as a service responsible for operating on predefined annotations and generating the JsonAdapter classes.

With the ksp Gradle plugin added to the Android project, the final usage of the library modules and the dependency graph is as follows:

// Wave `build.gradle` file 
dependencies {
graph showing how adjoe’s WAVE works with Joson library and kotlin symbol processing

The following annotation defined in the library’s main module demonstrates how the adapter generation works:

annotation class JsonSerializable

We then implement the KSP processor for the annotation, which is the entry point of our code generator, like this:

class JsonSerializableSymbolProcessorProvider : SymbolProcessorProvider {
    override fun create(environment: SymbolProcessorEnvironment): SymbolProcessor {
        return JsonSerializableSymbolProcessor(environment.codeGenerator, environment.logger)

private class JsonSerializableSymbolProcessor(
    private val codeGenerator: CodeGenerator,
    private val logger: KSPLogger
) : SymbolProcessor {
    override fun process(resolver: Resolver): List<KSAnnotated> {
        for (type in resolver.getSymbolsWithAnnotation(JSON_SERIALIZABLE_NAME)) {
            type as? KSDeclaration ?: continue

            try {
                // Generate adapter class and write it to the [codeGenerator]
            } catch (e: Exception) {
                logger.error("Error preparing ${type.simpleName.asString()}")
        return emptyList()

    companion object {
        private val JSON_SERIALIZABLE_NAME = JsonSerializable::class.qualifiedName!!

The implementation of SymbolProcessorProvider class will be loaded as a service to instantiate the implementation of SymbolProcessor class. This should occur within the SymbolProcessorProvider.create() method, which will receive the necessary dependencies – in this case, CodeGenerator and KSPLogger – and pass them to the SymbolProcessor.

The main logic of each processor happens inside the SymbolProcessor.process() method, which will be called for each provided processor in the compilation time. Inside this method, resolver.getSymbolsWithAnnotation() can be used to get the symbols the processor wants to process, given the fully-qualified name of an annotation. 

In our processor, for example, we iterate through the pre-defined JsonSerializable annotations in the code and generate an adapter for each annotated class. For more details on implementing a SymbolProcessor, you can read the Kotlin documentation.  

We implemented the actual code generation using a powerful library called KotlinPoet by Square, which is a Kotlin and Java API for generating .kt source files.

For example, let’s suppose we have a data class like the following, which requires serialization.

data class AdRequest(
    val id: String,
    val publisherId: String,
    val adType: String,
    val timestamp: Long

Simply annotating it with @JsonSerializable will result in our code generator module creating the following adapter for it. This adapter will be accessible through the main module like any other custom adapter:

public class AdRequestJsonAdapter(
    joson: Joson,
) : JsonAdapter<AdRequest>() {
  private val keys: JReader.Keys = JReader.Keys.of("id", "publisherId", "adType", "timestamp")

  private val stringAdapter: JsonAdapter<String> = joson.adapter(

  private val longAdapter: JsonAdapter<Long> = joson.adapter(

  override fun fromJson(reader: JReader): AdRequest {
    var id: String? = null
    var publisherId: String? = null
    var adType: String? = null
    var timestamp: Long? = null
      while (reader.hasNext()) {
        when (reader.resolveKey(keys)) {
          0 -> id = stringAdapter.fromJson(reader) ?: throw illegalNullProperty("id", reader)
          1 -> publisherId = stringAdapter.fromJson(reader) ?: throw illegalNullProperty("publisherId", reader)
          2 -> adType = stringAdapter.fromJson(reader) ?: throw illegalNullProperty("adType", reader)
          3 -> timestamp = longAdapter.fromJson(reader) ?: throw illegalNullProperty("timestamp", reader)
      return AdRequest(
          id = id ?: throw illegalNullProperty("id", reader),
          publisherId = publisherId ?: throw illegalNullProperty("publisherId", reader),
          adType = adType ?: throw illegalNullProperty("adType", reader),
          timestamp = timestamp ?: throw illegalNullProperty("timestamp", reader),

  override fun toJson(writer: JWriter, value: AdRequest?) {
    if (value == null) {
      throw NullPointerException("provided value is null on serialization")
    stringAdapter.toJson(writer, value.publisherId)"adType")
    stringAdapter.toJson(writer, value.adType)"timestamp")
    longAdapter.toJson(writer, value.timestamp)

What Did We Achieve Through Code Generation?

Integrating Kotlin Symbol Processing (KSP) for compile-time code generation has significantly enhanced the efficiency, reliability, and performance of JSON serialization in WAVE’s SDK.

We have not only ensured type safety but also minimized build and runtime conflicts and security vulnerabilities by minimizing dependencies on third-party libraries.

We’ve crucially also minimized runtime overhead and eliminated potential reflection-related issues. For our team, this translates to fewer bugs and a cleaner, more streamlined codebase that’s easier to maintain. Our end users benefit from a more responsive and stable SDK. This enhances the overall user experience and increases trust in our solution.

Embracing code generation further to other areas – such as generating type-safe APIs, creating database schemas, and streamlining dependency injection – would allow us to revolutionize various aspects of our development processes and eliminate manual boilerplate, enhance modularity, and improve maintainability across our development processes. 

It would crucially also ensure our solutions remain robust and cutting-edge for our partners.

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